When Nehru ji was hesitant but Patel was adamant for military action on Hyderabad

Now September 17 is ‘Hyderabad Liberation Day’. Before this, ‘Partition Horror Day’ was celebrated on 14th August. The celebrations of Liberation Day will continue throughout the year. Obviously, along with this, the political implications of this decision of the Modi government will also continue to be discussed. Telangana’s K.K. Chandrashekhar Rao-led T.R. s. The government will remember this day as ‘National Unity Day’. Leftists are calling it rebellion day. In the midst of this political tussle, the memories of the 74-year-old events of Hyderabad are either not in the minds of later generations or are incomplete and blurred.

If the mention of partition gives tears to the country’s split and its wounds, then the merger of Hyderabad on the other hand gave the country a chance to smile by saving another partition. At that time, a series of conspiracies were going on to separate Hyderabad from India with the help of Pakistan. There is an exciting story of how they were foiled. This story is being remembered again on the pretext of Hyderabad Liberation Day or Ekta Diwas.

India did not accept any condition for Hyderabad different from other princely states.

Hyderabad was included in the three princely states whose merger with India could not be possible till 15 August 1947. Even after the joining of Junagadh and Kashmir with India, the question of Hyderabad could not be resolved. At the behest of Governor General Mountbatten, Sardar Patel gave Hyderabad an additional time of three months. The conversation continued. Delegations arriving from Hyderabad to Delhi held long talks. Drafts of the agreement were made and then they were rejected as soon as they reached Hyderabad. Then every time someone would present a new condition. India’s stand was clear. It was not possible for the government to approve any new formula for Hyderabad unlike other princely states. Keeping India entangled in talks, the Nizam was engaged in other preparations. He was expanding his army. Weapons were being collected from other countries. They were moving towards Pakistan. He also gave him twenty crore rupees. Seeking support from other countries as well. They were trying to internationalize the issue.

Patel had an objection to the meaningless talks again and again

Sardar Patel had on several occasions questioned the significance of the talks. He felt wrong in the intentions of the Nizam. Mountbatten and Pandit Nehru wanted to settle this question somehow peacefully. The country was on the war front over the Kashmir issue. The flames of the partition riots were still being felt. There was concern that the spark of Hyderabad should not only take Hyderabad but the rest of India in the grip of riots again. Pandit Nehru’s patience was also answered by Nizam’s obstinate stance. In his press conference of 17 June 1948, he refused to talk further than Hyderabad. Mountbatten was very disappointed. His term as Governor General was coming to an end. His efforts to get the Hyderabad question resolved before returning to England could not materialise. His failures included Hyderabad when he left Delhi on 21 June. C Rajagopalachari (Rajaji) took his place.

Hyderabad had its own army and currency

The princely state of Hyderabad, spread over 82,000 square miles, was surrounded by the Central Provinces in the north, Bombay in the west and Madras in the east and north. The annual income was 26 crores. He also had his own army and currency. Population one crore sixty lakh. Eighty-five percent are Hindus and the rest are Muslims. The reins of power were in the hands of Nizam Osman Ali Khan. Muslims also dominated the police-army and administration. The 132-member assembly formed by the Nizam in 1946, despite the very low share of the population, had ten more Muslim members than Hindus.

Dream of Asaf Jahi flag on Delhi’s Red Fort

Geographically, the effort of the ruler of the princely state located in the center of India was to establish an independent country. Pakistan was giving him air. The Razakars of Ittehad-ul-Muslimen, led by Qasim Razvi, were pouring poison into the atmosphere. The news of his nexus with the Communists was raising India’s concern. There was discussion of the rule of the Razakars during the day and the rule of the Communists in the night. The Nizam had banned the communists in his entire state in 1943 but removed it amidst this tension. The Indian government got information that these communists were being provided with weapons. (Integration of the Indian Status – VP Menon- 334)

Rajvi gave a very provocative speech on 31 March 1948 in Hyderabad. Challenged the Muslims there, saying that before the victory of Islam, do not take your swords back in the sheath. With the Quran in one hand and the sword in the other, set out to annihilate the enemy. The worst-dangerous aspect of this speech was when he said that India’s four and a half crore Muslims are with us in this war. On 12th April, Razvi said that the day is not far when the Bay of Bengal will set the feet of our Sultanate. Asaf Jahi will hoist the flag at Delhi’s Red Fort.

A blot on the unity achieved by blood cannot be tolerated

The news of Rajvi’s speeches in the newspapers was spoiling the atmosphere of the rest of the country. The gangs of Razakars were attackers on the Congressmen and Hindu population of Hyderabad. The process of his murder and looting of property was going on. Muslims who disliked the actions of the Razakars were also being harassed. Incidents of attacks on trains passing through the princely state were increasing. The areas adjacent to the border provinces were also in the grip of the antics of the Razakars. The exodus of the vulnerable Hindu population from Hyderabad had started. On 15 April, the Prime Minister of Hyderabad, Laik Ali was in Delhi. Sardar Patel insisted on meeting him even after his illness.

Refusing to accept any clarification on Rajvi’s speeches, Patel said bluntly, “I know very well in whose hands the power of Hyderabad is in their hands. Hazrat (Rajvi) who dominates Hyderabad has clearly said that if India enters Hyderabad, it will get only bones and ashes of 1.5 crore Hindus. If this is the case, then surely he is destroying the Nizam and his races. For Laiq Ali, this sabka, tone and tongue were new. He had never faced such a situation in his meetings with Pandit Nehru and Mountbatten. Patel did not stop here,” Go on. Talk to the Nizam and give the last answer. So that we can decide what to do? Destroy the unity of the country which we have built by giving our blood, it will not be tolerated.

By August 1948, the condition of Hyderabad was critical.

By August 1948, the condition of Hyderabad became very critical. Apart from the armed 20 thousand Razakars, the number of regular and irregular military force of the Nizam was 42 thousand. There was a large gathering of Pathans brought from other places. Weapons were being delivered from Pakistan by air. The Nizam was active on both the fronts. Also in efforts to increase its military strength and bring other countries into its fold. He appealed to America for help. However, the US President turned down this appeal. The Agent General of the Nizam demanded air facility from the Government of India so that he could file a complaint with the Security Council of the United Nations.

After the refusal of the Indian government, Nabab Mohammad Moin Jung reached America via Karachi and presented a complaint to the Security Council. On the other hand, there was a huge dilemma about what and when India should take action. As soon as there was talk of police-military intervention, the communal situation in Hyderabad and the security of the Hindu population there was concerned. The fear of danger to Muslims in the rest of the country was troubling the government when there were reports of violence on Hindus. The concerns related to the opening of a second front after Kashmir were different.

The military general was also not in favor of military action.

Sardar Patel had been pressurizing for military action for a long time. In mid-May, he tried to persuade the cabinet to prepare for it. Prime Minister Nehru warned that India’s army in Kashmir may suffer in that condition. In the opinion of the British chief generals of the land, naval and naval forces, this campaign can be a troublesome gamble. According to him, upon entering Hyderabad, we will have very few soldiers to maintain peace in the rest of the country. The big bureaucrats also had the same thinking. Sardar was informed about this. Sardar’s reply was, “Look at last August’s Punjab. The Boundary Force of fifty-five thousand could not stop the massacre there. It is the government’s confession that keeps the people under control through effective military action. At present, the government has a very good reputation for conducting military intervention in Hyderabad and keeping the situation under control in other places. But if the government delays, its reputation will be so low that any army will be insufficient for internal security. With Patel’s efforts, the Defense Committee agreed to military preparations. Nevertheless, Lord Mountbatten, chairman of the Defense Committee, wrote, “Pandit Nehru spoke openly in the meeting and personally assured me that he would not allow a military operation unless there was an incident like the massacre of Hindus, which To justify India’s action in the eyes of the world. (Hudson-Great Divide-492)

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