5 August. That day was also the same date. It was just the year 2019. On the morning of August 5, 2019, there was something different. People were sleeping. when you wake up curfew had been imposed. The mobile phone signal had disappeared. Internet was closed. Even the landline connection was cut. In the last few days, thousands of soldiers had been deployed from the helicopters of the Air Force. integral part of the country Jammu and Kashmir Witnessing three major changes. Article 370 Deactivation of, the conversion of a State into a Union Territory and its division as Ladakh.
The operation was big, serious and therefore a bit painful, but necessary. Only a few days were left for the 72nd festival of independence. Then the tricolor was to be hoisted with great pride everywhere in the country. But in Jammu and Kashmir, another red flag used to participate in this pride. Although that flag was also constitutional. But after that date, the flag was neither constitutional nor relevant. If only your national flag, your tricolor.
It has been said about Kashmir,
“Gar firdaus bar ruye zami ast
Hami Asto, Hami Asto, Hami Asto”
That is, if there is any heaven on earth, it is here, it is here, it is only here. Before that date it was heaven and even after that date. Its natural position remained the same, but the geographical boundaries changed slightly. Along with this, many systems changed politically and administratively as well. That was the date and today is the date. The government says that now the situation has become better than before.
The Jammu and Kashmir that we see today has gone through major changes. Before independence and since independence till now. Many personalities, many faces, political parties, governments have been co-travellers in this journey of Kashmir. From 1947 till now, this journey of Jammu and Kashmir has gone through struggles and changes.
Let us take a glimpse of this journey through some major incidents and incidents.
- 15 August 1947:- The country got independence from the British rule, but it was divided into India and Pakistan. Then Jammu and Kashmir used to be a separate princely state.
- 26 October 1947:- Maharaja Hari Singh of Kashmir signed the accession treaty with the country’s first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. After this Kashmir joined India. However, it went unnoticed to Pakistan and a war broke out between India and Pakistan.
- April 1948:- The United Nations Security Council put the condition of a plebiscite in Kashmir. Pakistan refused to withdraw the army. Kashmir was partitioned. Azad Kashmir went to the part of India and Gilgit Baltistan went to the part of Pakistan.
- 17 October 1949:- After the refusal of Bhimrao Ambedkar, Gopal Swami Iyengar prepared Article 370 on the instructions of the then PM Nehru. Special status was given to Jammu and Kashmir. The center was only responsible for foreign affairs, defense and communication.
- September-October 1951:- The first election was held in Jammu and Kashmir. The Jammu and Kashmir National Front led by Sheikh Abdullah won all 75 seats. It was earlier Muslim League. The election cannot be a substitute for a referendum, the UN Security Council declared.
February 1954:- Sheikh Abdullah turned back and was imprisoned. When Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad became the Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir, the merger letter was approved.
- 17 November 1956 :- Jammu and Kashmir was declared an integral part of India in the state’s constitution. It came into force on 26 January 1957. The then Union Home Minister Govind Ballabh Pant announced this in the capital Srinagar.
- 1965:- Once again Pakistani infiltrators started militancy in the Kashmir Valley. Maqbool Bhatt and Amanullah Khan opened the Rajkumari Morcha under the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front. Then the Operation Gibraltar campaign was launched. War broke out again between India and Pakistan.
- January 1966:- India had won from Pakistan. An agreement was signed between the two countries in Tashkent. Both sides withdrew.
- 1971:- A war broke out between India and Pakistan. Indira Gandhi was the Prime Minister then. The Indian army strengthened the Pakistani army on its knees. Then thousands of soldiers of Pakistan were killed. On 16 December 1971, General Niazi, who was the head of the Pakistan Army, surrendered to the Indian Army along with his 93,000 soldiers. India broke Pakistan into two pieces. East Pakistan ended and a new country emerged in the form of Bangladesh.
- July 1972:- The Simla Agreement was signed between the Prime Minister of Pakistan Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and the Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi after several rounds. Under this, it was agreed to resolve the Kashmir issue bilaterally. Simultaneously, the Line of Control (LoC) was created for the ceasefire. However, Pakistan always violated this agreement.
- February 1975:- Sheikh Abdullah again became the Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir and he remained in this post till 1983.
- 1987:- Assembly elections were held in Jammu and Kashmir. There was massive fraud in this. National Conference leader Farooq Abdullah got power. During the reign of Farooq, an armed rebellion led by JKLF at the behest of Pakistan got air.
- 1989-90:- A person close to the administration and Kashmiri Pandits came under the target of terrorists. More than 100 Kashmiri Pandits were killed in 1990. Over 1.5 lakh Pandit families left the Valley in the next decade.
- January 1990:- Farooq Abdullah resigned in the House in protest against the CRPF firing on the protesters. After this, AFSPA i.e. Armed Forces Privileges Act was implemented during the reign of Governor Jagmohan.
- July 1999:- Due to Pakistani infiltrators, once again war broke out between the two countries and once again India won the war.
- 1 October 2001:- Jaish-e-Mohammed’s fidayeen attack on the assembly in Srinagar took place. Parliament was also attacked on 13 December. It was an attack on Indian pride, an attack on the temple of democracy.
- 10 February 2013:- Afzal Guru was sentenced to death after being found guilty for his alleged role in the Parliament attack. This increased the protests in the Valley.
- May 2014:- The result of the general elections held in the country came. Narendra Modi won the election and became the Prime Minister. The then Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif was invited to the swearing-in ceremony. Later the talks were called off by the Pakistani High Commissioner on the call of Hurriyat leaders.
- 2014-15:- The BJP contested the election in alliance with the PDP. If won, Mufti Mohammad Sayeed became the Chief Minister of the BJP-PDP government.
- 4 April 2016:- Mehbooba Mufti’s father had died. Three months later, Mehbooba Mufti became the first woman Chief Minister of the state.
- 8 July 2016:-Hizbul commander Burhan Wani was killed in an encounter with the Indian Army. After this, a period of violent demonstrations started in the valley.
- 19 June 2018 :- Mehbooba Mufti resigned from the post of Chief Minister and Governor’s rule came into force.
- 5 August 2019:- Article 370 was disabled. The state was divided into two union territories, Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh.
In this way, a long battle was fought to bring Jammu and Kashmir into the mainstream of development. Implementation of this decision is counted among the major achievements of the BJP government under the leadership of Narendra Modi. it was not easy. Behind this was the trio and team of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, Home Minister Amit Shah and NSA Ajit Doval.
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