United Nations Development Program (UNDP) Its work is to remove poverty from countries as well as help in continuous economic development and development of human beings. UNDP human development index of Human Development Index (HDI) In 2021, India has been ranked 132 out of 191 countries. India’s score has dropped for two consecutive years in three decades.
This decline reflects the trend seen all over the world since the outbreak of Kovid-19. Ninety percent of countries have registered a decline in human development during this period.
This index is part of the UNDP’s Human Development Report 2021-22 released on Thursday. The HDI measures a country’s average achievement of human development in three basic dimensions – a long and healthy life, education and standard of living. It is calculated using four indicators – estimated age at birth, average years of schooling, total schooling expected and gross national income (GNI).
First understand how much fall
It is not possible to compare the ranking of countries in different years. Globally, the decline in average age has contributed significantly to the recent decline in HDI. It has come down from 72.8 years in 2019 to 71.4 years in 2021. In the case of India, it has fallen from 69.7 to 67.2 years.
India’s HDI score of 0.633 places it in the medium human development category, which is lower than its 0.645 score in 2018 and 2019. This indicates a reversal in progress.
Similarly the expected year of schooling in India is 11.9, while the average of schooling is 6.7 years. Here the gross national income per capita is $ 6,590.
impact of covid-19 on UNDP report
The impact of Kovid-19 is also visible in the UNDP report. The report shows that nine out of 10 countries lag behind in human development. The report lists crises such as the Ukraine war and changes in the environment. The report says for India that the country’s HDI index has been consistently approaching the world average since 1990. This is faster than the global rate of progress in human development.
The UNDP analysis also shows that India is bridging the human development gap between men and women faster than the world.
Why is this a big deal?
India is one of the fastest growing economies in the world, but various surveys have shown that it is also one of the most unequal countries. For example, Oxfam International found last year that inequality has been increasing rapidly for three decades. The richest people have captured a large part of the wealth either by inheritance or by forming gangs of the rich and government institutions.
The latest data from the World Bank shows that there has been a sharp decline in the employment of women in India since the outbreak of Kovid-19. In 2022, it has fallen to 9 percent, which is equivalent to war-torn Yemen. “Between 2010 and 2020, the number of working women in India fell from 26 percent to 19 percent.” The data shows that as the infection progressed, the situation got worse. According to this, more than 10 crore people lost their jobs due to the lockdown related to coronavirus.
How much of a contradiction?
India will overtake China in terms of population next year to become the most populous country in the world. Due to the increasing population of the country, it will take many years for welfare schemes to reach the lowest strata. A World Bank report this year states that Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s government has given priority to creating new jobs from the very beginning. But according to the report, the progress in the improvement of working women has been very less during this period.
Women make up 48 per cent of the total population in India, but they contribute only 17 per cent to GDP compared to 40 per cent in China.
As India’s economy has grown, so has unemployment. The unemployment rate has remained at 7 percent to 8 percent in recent months. The Center for Monitoring the Indian Economy (CMIE) has found that only 40 per cent of working-age Indians are working, down from 46 per cent five years ago.
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