Mumbai : The Hyderabad Liberation War holds a special place in the Indian freedom struggle. On August 15, 1947, India was freed from British slavery, but Hyderabad remained under the rule of the Nizams. Nizam Mir Osman Ali, who announced that Hyderabad would remain independent, had tied up with Pakistan. The Razakars of the Nizam had started unrelenting atrocities on the citizens. Iron man Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel took police action on Hyderabad. He brought the Nizam to his knees and liberated Hyderabad in just 108 hours through ‘Operation Polo’. 17th September is observed as Hyderabad Liberation Day in his memory.
During the Mughal era, 1713 Asaf Jahan was declared as Sardar of Hyderabad with the title of Nizam-ul-Mulk. came Later in the year 1798, this institution came under British rule. The Nizam of Hyderabad sided with the British from the very beginning, so the British always favored him.
Nizam in the list of richest people in the world
Hyderabad state was as big as 82,698 sq km. It included present-day Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Marathwada and two districts of Karnataka. The annual revenue of Hyderabad at that time was Rs.9 crores. Nizam was counted among the richest people in the world at that time. The Nizam used to use a 185 carat Jacob diamond as a paperweight. The British favored the Hyderabad State. At that time Hyderabad had independent telecommunication system, independent railways and economy. 80 percent of the population of Hyderabad were Hindus and 20 percent were minorities. But all the high posts and government jobs under the Nizam had a place for minorities.
Hyderabad declared itself independent
India became independent on 15 August 1947. At that time there were total 565 institutes in India. Among them, all the princely states except Junagadh, Bhopal and Hyderabad decided to join India. Later action was taken against Junagadh while Bhopal announced joining India. But it was announced that Hyderabad would remain independent.
Pakistan had a hidden hand behind this action of Hyderabad. Portugal also supported him. Nizam sought support from America and Britain. But they didn’t get it. The Nizam started efforts to get Hyderabad membership in the Commonwealth of Nations. It also started covert efforts to buy sophisticated weapons from European countries.
Sardar Patel’s concern
Having a province in central India that is loyal to Pakistan is dangerous for Indian security. , then Home Minister Sardar Patel opined that Hyderabad was a cancer in India’s stomach. So he was firm on the opinion that Hyderabad should join India in any case.
Rise of the Razakars
The Nizam had raised an army of Razakars for the security of Hyderabad. Qasim Rizvi was the leader of these Razakars. He had only raised the bar in the Sansthan. He used to expose acts like atrocities on citizens, looting, communal riots, murders. The Nizam had full support for him.
Qasim Rizvi’s threat to Sardar Patel…
Government of India called for Hyderabad to merge with India like other institutions after India’s independence. was But the Nizam was against it. India took the role of discussion for it. November 1947 Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and Qasim Rizvi meet in Delhi. He gave a direct threat to Sardar Patel that it would cost dearly if they touch Hyderabad. Patel replied that if you have decided to commit suicide, how will we stop it.
Anger against the Nizam across India
On 22 May 1948, Razakars at Gangapur station. Railway passengers were attacked, many of them died. Due to this, anger was created all over India against the Nizam. Now a lot of pressure began to mount for the Indian government to take action against the Nizam.
Police action and Operation Polo
Sardar Patel started movements for military action in Hyderabad. But this operation was named as police operation instead of military operation. Because military action is taken against a foreign nation. Hyderabad is a part of India, so police decided to take action. This would have shut the mouths of other countries including Pakistan.
Hyderabad had the highest number of polo grounds in the world at that time, 17. Hence this operation was named ‘Operation Polo’ on 13th September Indian Army entered Hyderabad. At that time the Gorkha battalion made a tremendous attack. Razakar’s army was only around 24 thousand. In just three days, all major places in Hyderabad were captured by India. The Razakars could not withstand the onslaught of the Indian army. On September 17 i.e. after five days Nizam surrendered.
Indian Army brought Nizam to his knees in 108 hours. In this operation, 66 Indian soldiers were martyred while 1373 Razakars were killed. While the Nizam surrendered, Qasim Rizvi was arrested and later released in Pakistan. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel merged Hyderabad State with India and gave real meaning to Indian independence.
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